RUS / EN
INTERNATIONAL ACADEMIC AND SOCIAL JOURNAL
"THE WORLD OF TRANSFORMATIONS"
A.A.Akaev (Kyrgyzstan), S.D. Bodrunov (Russia), V.M. Geets (Ukraine), M.S. Gorbachev (Russia), G.K. Galbraith (USA), M.Zeman (Czechia), I. Iliesku (Romania), G. Kolodko (Poland), A. Ye. Lebedev (Russia), A. Michnik (Poland), A.D. Nekipelov (Russia), P.G.Nikitenko (Belarus), K. Prunskene (Lithuania), R.Skidelsky (United Kingdom), Î. Sulejmenov (Kazakhstan), F.Tishendorf (Germany), Ya.Charnogursky (Slovakia), L. Sharinger (Austria), G. Erler (Germany)
- The Institute of Economics, Russian Academy of Sciences
- NP "Editorial board of "The World of Transformations" journal"
The journal is registered by the Ministry for Television and Radio Broadcasting and Mass Media PI N 77-15089 from April 14, 2003.
A.V.Alexeyev (managing editor), V.Bachishin, L.B.Vardomsky, S.P.Glinkina, M.Yu.Golovnin, V.I.Kulikov, N.V.Kulikova, E.K.Mazurova, I.I.Orlik, A.P.Potyemkin, V.A.Samarin, G.D.Toloraya, B.Ye.Frumkin, T.V.Tsygichko (executive secretary), E.V.Tsymbal, T.V.Chubarova, L.F.Shevtsova, B.A.Shmelyov
Web-site: http:// www.imepi-eurasia.ru, http://www.imepi-eurasia.ru/eng/mir.php
To the Readers of "The World of Transformations"
To the Readers
Moscow Economic Forum
At the Beginnings of Change
Shall We Reach an Agreement to Negotiate?
Probably, many, if not all, often find themselves in a situation, when disagreements, disputes, and just
different opinions expressed out loud – do not lead to the agreements and mutual consent, but to the
quarrels, enmity, conflicts. The deficiency of negotiability now even hinders the development of healthy
relationships between the individual countries and between the unions of countries.
The Results of the Market Reforms "Without Anger and Bias"
According to the tradition, the Moscow Economic Forum was held in late March already for the fourth
time. Its participants were more than three thousand people. It was covered by about 100 representatives
of the media. It was visited by numerous foreign guests. Its main theme – 25 years of reforms in
Russia – attracted attention primarily of those, who actively advocated the change of the economic
model, prevailing in the country, and offered it a constructive alternative. From a series of plenary
sessions, we chose the one that is closer to the subject and the profile of our journal. The results of
these reforms are assessed by the well-known Russian and foreign experts. The discussion is moderated
by the Co-Chair of the MEF (the Moscow Economic Forum) R. Grinberg.
On the Eve of the Collapse of the USSR
This year marks 25 years, since the huge state – the Soviet Union, ceased to exist.
did not become a huge state – the Soviet Union. Much has been written about what, how and why it
happened. But is there sufficient evidence of how the opposing factors were acting and what was being
undertaken to prevent the catastrophe, which was later called geopolitical?
Yu. Knyazev, M. Lobanov. On the Significance of Market Reforms in the CEE Countries
The beginning of market reforms in Central and Eastern Europe (CEE) turned a quarter of a century
already. That is a considerable period in order to draw some conclusions. What this gave these countries,
which had decided to give up not entirely successful socialism and to take the path of return to a more
G. Toloraya, L. Yakovleva.
On the North Korean Transformations: Attempts of "Liberalization and Openness"
Many expected significant changes in the DPRK, taking into account the young age and Western
education of the new leader. There were also those who believed that the role of the new leader would
be purely formal, while the real power would remain in the hands of the military and political elite,
which had gained strength still under the rule of his father.
D. Epshtein. The Economy of Russia: Initial Shove is Required
The reasons, why in Russia the transition to the new industrialization has not been implemented, are
analyzed. It is shown that this is due to a number of peculiarities of the Russian economy. On a number
of the well-known examples, the role of "the initial shove" in the economic reforms of the USSR,
China, Japan, South Korea and Germany is shown.
Yu. Ganin. Foreign Trade Relations of Moldova and Transdniestria in the Conditions of the Competing
The Republic of Moldova, while retaining membership in the Commonwealth of the CIS and the
participation in the Treaty on the Free Trade Zone of the CIS countries, since September of 2014,
started implementation of the provisions of the Association Agreement with the EU. In the current
situation, the new chances and the new threats appeared both for the trade relations between
Moldova and Transdniestria with the West and with the East, and for the process of the Moldovan-
Transdniestrian settlement of the conflict.
B. Shmelev. The Post-Soviet Space: Chances and Risks of Consolidation
The Post-Soviet space is gradually losing the geopolitical integrity under the influence of directed
actions of various world centers of power. The New Independent States externally are politically
oriented differently and are not interested in the development of mutual integration. After the
beginning of the Ukrainian crisis, the CIS is losing the last remnants of legal capacity. A number of
conflicts between the NIS is growing, including the armed ones.
The Western Factor for the Eastern European Transformations
Some researchers call the socio-economic and political transformations in Central and Eastern Europe
over the past 25 years, the historical phenomenon. But the old political "definition" "Eastern Europe" is
retained and it is still often repeated again in politics, scientific publications (especially in the West), in
the press and other publications. And there are grounds for this.
The Imperative of the Welfare State and the Problems of Systemic Corruption in Russia
The article considers the problem of implementation of the principles of the welfare state in modern
Russia in the conditions of economic sanctions from the West.
Yes, there is Growing Inequality: But Why Do the People not Revolt?
In recent years, both in academic journals and in the mass media, the reality of the growing wealth and
income inequality has been described in detail and commented upon. Why do people put up with such
The Innovation is a Necessary Condition for Competitiveness
In the era of the globalization, the stormy technological changes and turbulences in the global economy,
high innovative capacity becomes a necessary condition of competition at the micro and macro levels.
Eurasian Economic Union as Factor of Armenia Development
Armenia, which is in a difficult socio-economic situation, is provided with a real opportunity, by
adopting economic policies, with the underlying internal mechanisms and with the institutions of
securing the development, to obtain the macroeconomic effects from the integration process, especially
in the backbone, systemically important sectors, considerably increasing the country’s competitiveness
and ensuring its economic development.
Migrants – Drama of the European Union
Flows of refugees, which swept Europe, remain an acute problem of both the individual countries and
of the European Union. The lack of unity of members of this organization remains a problem as well,
when it is being solved.
We Need Statesmen and Values, not Cynical and Selfish Policy
A total indifference has accompanied the number of refugees injured by Macedonian police in Idomeni,
where more than 12 000 people, including 4 000 children have been trapped, since Austria asked
Macedonia, Serbia, Croatia and Slovenia, to prevent the continuing passage of refugees. Austria has now
informed the Italian government that it will send several hundred troops to its border with Italy.
From "The Holiday of the Revolution" to "The Holiday of Holy War with the West"
Post-Crimean Russia opens many "secrets of the Russian soul". One must know that, behind a now
fashionable in Russia doctrine of specific Russian anti-western civilization, first of all, stands, a "savage
philosophy" of the Russian predecessor of F. Nietzsche, a philosophy of K. Leontiev.
To the Readers
The World Crisis
- F. Popov. The Evolution of Ideas about the Integration Processes
on the Post-Soviet Space
- V. Ozhigina. From the Single Economic Space to the Eurasian Economic Union:
New Opportunities or Old Problems?
Onto the Bookshelf
- A. Akimov. There are more differences than coincidences
- I. Sinicina, N. Chudakova. Through the pages of the trilogy
by professor H. Holay
- DIEPS IE RAS Scientific Reports in 2015
Pessimism as an Unaffordable Luxury
Lately I am often asked, apparently in connection with the yet indomitable crisis, about the
following: what is happening to the domestic economy, can we overcome the so-called "curse" of
the resource-based economy, this humiliating dependency on the vagaries of oil prices, or shall we
slide into a deaf technological backwater?
The Future of International Development Institutions: Can Their Failures Be Even Greater?
Greece’s entry into the European Monetary Union became a kind of straitjacket for it. The
exchange rate and other economic indicators, associated with membership in Eurozone, did not fit
into fundamentals of the Greek economy.
S. Draková, Ju. Sipko.
The Nature and Factors of Global Imbalances in the Economy
Since the beginning of the XXI century in the global economy, primarily in the countries of the
"Big Seven" (G7) and in the BRICS countries, such phenomenon became increasingly prominent
as the global imbalances. In order to normalize the global economy, it is very important to achieve
the reduction of global imbalances
Yu. Kotynsky. The Structural Changes and Turbulences in the World as a Challenge to the Development of
the Polish and European Economies
In the highly unstable external conditions, the economic development of Poland in the years
1995–2015, had been characterized by relatively high dynamics. However, these successes could be
jeopardized, taking into account the nature and direction of contemporary processes of globalization,
as well as the associated with them structural transformations and turbulences in the global economy.
The Modern Strategy of Agrarian Policy in the Context of the "Special Russian Way"
What is the nature of agrarian policy, that is the level of the well-being in agriculture, predetermining
the overall progress in the socio-economic development. This interrelation is illustrated by the whole
course of the global world economic process, and above all, by the experience of developed countries.
Meanwhile, Russia continues to follow its own "special way", getting adequate, to put it mildly,
disappointing results both in the economy and in the main for the constitutional state – in the social
and other social conditions of people’s lives.
D. Kalan, M. Derlik. "The Limping Tigers" of Eastern Europe: The Unorthodox Economic Policy in Hungary
Against the Austerity Measures in Romania
It is not difficult to forget that Greece was not the only victim of the economic problems that had been
shaking the European Union since the year 2008. The post-communist countries of the East of the
EU suffered, too. True, they never felt a pinch comparable to the Greek one. Still, after 2008, the once
booming region – in the 2000s, its countries were known as the "Central European tigers" – saw a sudden
reversal of fortune. With one exception (Poland), the EU newcomers saw sharp reductions in gross
domestic product and domestic consumption, weak industrial production, and increases in public debt.
M. Sokolov. Comparative Effectiveness of State and Private Property in Russia’s Oil and Gas Companies
Today in Russia, is there an acute need for de-privatization of companies? And what should be
done to enhance the working efficiency of Russian oil and gas companies?
T. Neelova. The Reaction of the World Community to Intensification of the Nuclear
Program of the DPRK
During the years, spent on negotiations with North Korea, the countries, interested in the
cessation of its nuclear program, failed to achieve positive results. The North Korean regimecontinues to use the presence of nuclear weapons and of the means of its delivery as a lever of
blackmail of the developed countries for obtaining of economic aid.
The Economic Consequences of the Association Agreement between the EU and Ukraine: the
It has been more than a year and a half since the change of power in Ukraine, more than a year
since the signing of the Agreement on Association between Ukraine and the EU. One can sum up
the first results of economic development of the country within the framework of implementation
of the almost "single-vector" policy towards European integration.
Mega-Cities of the Future: a Chance or a Threat for the Development
Mega-cities are a relatively new phenomenon, since their emergence and rapid development
started approximately in the seventies of the twentieth century. The sources of their development
are diverse, nevertheless, among the universal reasons, at least three can be distinguished and they
are as follows: the demographic explosion; globalization and the information revolution.
On the Role of Women in Senior Management of Germany
Inequality in pay of male and female labor has always been an acute social problem under
capitalism. In modern conditions, it became somewhat softened, although it is retained even in
such socio-economically developed countries, as Germany.
The Global Regionalism: Russia before Choosing
The globalization of the world economy, despite the global crisis of the years 2007–2009, did not
stop and continues to evolve. In parallel to this process, a trend toward regionalization of the
world economy is developing, which, at first sight, leads to fragmentation of the general planetary
economic space and to the autonomy of its individual parts.
Transport and Infrastructural Projects in Eurasia
The development of transport infrastructure in the Post-Soviet countries, that lie on the latitudinal
and meridional directions, is becoming more urgent. The unfolding geopolitical situation exacerbates
the need for the countries of the Grand Eurasia in a variety of transit routes in the Post-Soviet space.
Russia and Chinese Project "One Belt, One Road"
Russia and Chinese Project "One Belt, One Road"
The Chinese concept of the Silk Road Economic Belt and of the Maritime Silk Road of the 21st
Century was analyzed in this article. The author assesses the possible political and economic
impact of the project "One Belt, One Road" and a reaction to this project in Russia.
The Evolution of Ideas about the Integration Processes on the Post-Soviet Space
The Post-Soviet space, as well as any space, is dynamic and it is subjected to transformation. The
best source of information on these representations are the media – and the represented article is
devoted as well to the analysis of the main changes in the nature of press coverage of topics of the
From the Single Economic Space to the Eurasian Economic Union: New Opportunities or
This article examines changes during the transition from the Single Economic Space to the
Eurasian Economic Union, associated with removal of exceptions, widening of integration,
changes of institutions and integration policies, the development of relations with the third
countries. The key problems of integration into the EAEU were defined and the proposals were
made to strengthen the innovation, budgetary, production, cluster and regional policy components
of the Eurasian Economic Commission.
To the Readers
- R. Grinberg. Test for Spirituality and Humanism
25 Years of Transformation
Onto the Bookshelf
- V. Lebedev. Analysis of market reforms in Russia
- A. Porokhovsky. The World of Transformations without Changesðåìåí
Test for Spirituality and Humanism
Modernity offers Europe and the rest of the world a unique test of spirituality and
humanism. It’s about who and how to respond to the flow of refugees to Europe from North
Africa and the Middle East.
S. Glinkina, N. Kulikova
On the Issue about the Effectiveness of the Transformation of the Social System in the
Countries of Central and Eastern Europe
The revolutions in Central and Eastern Europe at the turn of the 80–90-ies became the
biggest political event of the second half of the XX century. They marked the collapse of the
world socialist system, in which frameworks the CEE countries had developed almost half a
century after the Second World War and laid the foundation for the transformation of their
Has the Transformation Really Ended?
In connection with the 25th anniversary of the ≪velvet revolutions≫ in the former socialist
countries, the journal asked the public figures and scientists of Hungary, Poland, and
Slovakia, to answer a number of questions.
Bulgaria: Transition to Democracy or the Restoration of the Primitive Balkan Capitalism
It took a quarter of a century since the beginning of the processes of transformation and
European integration of Bulgaria. During this period the republic made the transition from
a planned to a market economy, it became a fully fledged member of the EU and NATO.
But how effective the constructed economic model of the country proved to be, and did its
competitiveness increase? The analysis of the socio-economic indicators of Bulgaria and its
place in the international division of labor leads to disappointing conclusions.
Looking Behind the Curtain: What about the Hungarian "Economic Miracle"?
In the last period, the Hungarian, and partly also the international mass media are full of
positive economic developments in Hungary. However, the influential international
organizations so far are not seeking to raise the ratings of Hungary
D. Cvijanović, B. Mihailović, P. Vuković. Harmonization of Serbia’s Agrarian Policy with the EU Common Agricultural Policy
Due to its natural conditions, Serbia has great potential for development of the agricultural
sector, which so far is not used in full. In the presence of an adequate agricultural policy,
agriculture can make a significant contribution to the economic development of the country.
The interrelation and the impact on other branches make agriculture particularly important
for the growth of the Serbian economy.
Eastern Europe's Anti-Market Revolution
Recently, quite a lot has been written about the victory of the conservative party ≪Law and
Justice≫ at the regular elections in Poland. The coming to power of the party became a hit
for the European Union, which aroused controversy between the United States and Russia,
concerning control of Eastern Europe.
I. Orlik-Garlik. Central and Eastern Europe in Modern Geopolitics
A drastic dramatic change of the geopolitical situation almost all over the world is manifested in
different ways in the position of separate regions and countries. The European continent seems to
have returned to the pre-detonation state of distant times of the twentieth century.
S. Arbuzov. What is Happening in Ukraine, Two Years after the Beginning of the Maidan
Exactly two years passed since one of the Ukrainian journalists called in the social networks to
take warm clothes and go to Kiev’s Maidan in protest against ≪the stopping of Ukraine’s European
integration≫. This unimportant fact gave start to a whole sequence of events that led eventually to
the coup d’etat, to the war in the Donets Coal Basin and to the collapse of the economy.
G. Shapiro, H. Tobern. About the Oligarchs and Corruption: Ukraine Face to Face With Its Own Demons
While in the east of Ukraine fighting continues, perhaps, more important battle for the soul of
Ukraine unfolds in the margins of the political corridors and at corporate planning meetings in Kiev..
Ukraine is Ripe for the Shock Doctrine
Like many states in crisis before it, Ukraine presents a perfect opportunity for neoliberal
transformation. While a crisis of faith, of sorts, has resounded in western discourse on the economic
effectiveness of austerity, this scepticism, rather ironically, dissipates when you cross over into the
remnants of the Iron Curtain.
Novorossia: Propaganda, Plus Shock
At present, Novorossia has become a new storyline in the Western media, directed against Russia,
reinforcing of the old propagandistic schemes and explaining criminal participation of Russia in the
By Moving Free Course
Chief Editor of "The World of Transformations" interviewed famous journalist, publicist and
publisher of Altai about the mood of the inhabitants of the region after the crisis and their relation
to values such as freedom and justice, as well as about the features of journalist’s job in the province.
BRICS Cooperation in New Phase of Globalization
The substance of the new globalization is to rebalance the westernization, and BRICS countries
represent the main force of this rebalance strategy. New globalization at present is still in its early
stages, but its development is a process with multiple political, economic and cultural dimensions.
R. Ncwadi. T. Ruzive.
BRICS Bank as an Alternative to the Current International Financial System in Developing
The current financial system has reached the peak of its effectiveness. It can no longer address
the needs of those it claims to represent and it is in light of these observations that alternatives are
necessary that would provide inclusive and equitable opportunities of development for all.
To the Readers
The World Crisis
Onto the Bookshelf
- V. Melyantsev. Comparative Analysis of Models China’s Economic Development, Russia and the West
- O. Sukharev. Russian Economic Policy – Industrialization
- A. Alexeev. Eurasian Union – Chances and Risks
The Paris Charter as a Missed Opportunity
25 years ago on November 21, 1990 in the capital of France, the Heads of State and Government of the countries – participants of the Conference on Security and Cooperation in Europe, signed and proclaimed the famous Paris Charter. The document, as it seemed then, which irrevocably opened "a new era of democracy, peace and unity" for all European nations. Quite so, exactly it was stated verbatim in the first lines of the Paris Charter.
Greece and Europe: Is Europe Holding up its End of the Bargain?
The Greek parliament accepted the requirements of the European authorities on the introduction of austerity measures and on the implementation of structural reforms, so as to defuse the tense situation which has developed as a result of the sovereign debt crisis in the country.
Greece, the Sacrificial Lamb
As soon as the Greek crisis advances to the next stage, Germany, Greece, and a triumvirate composed of the International Monetary Fund, the European Central Bank and the European Commission have faced serious criticism.
Death from the Debt Burden: that is – my Reply to the Minister of Finance of Germany
The deepest crisis in the history of Greece imposes historical responsibility on its most powerful creditor. Namely Germany should help it to start all over again, without leading up to total collapse.
G. W. Kolodko.
The Greek Syndrome
Regional integration is a good chance for the progress of globalization. Therefore, the significance of the Greek crisis goes far beyond the borders of the European Union.
The Greek Amphibole
Despite the developed stereotypes about the Greek debt crisis and about the ways of its settlement for further integration of Europe it is much more important to form long-term management mechanisms of the integrated financial system of Europe, including the external debt of individual countries.
S. Menshikov, L. Klimenko. How Russia should withdraw from the Liberal "End of History"
In 1992 a book written by F. Fukuyama "The End of History and the Last Man" was published. It became the apotheosis of the ideas of liberal capitalism. It was announced about the achievement of its most advanced stage by the mature mankind, to move from which you can only by expanding, by drawing the so-called lagged behind part the planet into its orbit. What this has resulted in less than a quarter of century later, we see now.
V. Kashin. On the New Model of Development for Russia
Russia contains many institutions of superstructure character. The sanctions exposed the danger of conservation of such a model of economic management. Alternatives to it are available, both on «the left» and on "the right" flanks of economic outlook, there are plenty of them to choose from, but we must have a clear idea on the following: what kind of requirements and what kind of self-restraints arise and appear in the application of any chosen model of economic management.
E. Bukhwald. Is the New Philosophy of Russian Federalism Possible?
Under the conditions of a rather complicated economic situation in the country the significance of the issues of Russian federal statehood is growing. Steps on reforming of the federal relations continue to be sporadic. In this context, it is necessary to consistently implement the course for decentralization of management and for the enhancement of the role of sub-federal echelon of management in achieving the priority objectives of the Russian economy.
O. Vorobyova, A. Topilin, A. Grebenyuk, T. Lebedeva .
The Era of Changes: a Reflection of Migration Processes in the Materials of Censuses of Russia’s Population (Years from 1970 through 2010)
The migration processes of the population always reflect differences in the quality of life and can occur either spontaneously or under the influence of various incentives, specially created conditions, with the support of state management systems.
B. Akitoby, S. Gupta, A. Senhadji.
How to Avoid the Trap of Slow Economic Growth: the Role of Fiscal Policy
The role of fiscal policy in enhancing the medium-and long-term economic growth in both developed and developing economies.
The August Catastrophe
Over the alarming concepts of "tragedy", "catastrophe", "dip", naturally, disturbing phenomena and processes lurk, some of which threaten the security of not only individual countries and nations, but also of entire continents.
Lian Hong Yi.
Policy of Neighborhood between China and Russia: State and Prospects
On the foreign policy of the PRC (the People’s Republic of China) towards Russia in the paradoxical, it would seem context of the ancient Chinese system of collecting tribute from the neighbors and on the modern policy of good-neighborliness.
Shanghai Cooperation Organization: a New Stage of Development
The regular summit of the Shanghai Cooperation Organization was held, which opened, according to the President of the Russian Federation, a new stage in the development of this regional grouping.
The Fate of the Anglo-Saxon Globalism
The world financial and economic crisis, which broke out in 2007, became reaction to the violation of the planetary balance of forces, which exposed the malignancy of the unipolar world order. The restoration of the balance in the redistribution of resources of the planet requires critical rethinking of «double standards» of the globalization and the non-standard approach to the development of a qualitatively new model of social development.
E. Lenchuk, V. Filatov.
New Industrialization as a Condition of Formation of a Stable Economic Growth of the Countries of the EAEU
New industrialization is becoming a strategic course of modern economic policy of the developed countries of the West. Its content is related to the resurgence of interest in industrial development on the new high-tech basis. Overcoming the consequences of the global financial and economic crisis and achieving sustained economic growth is becoming a central problem for the countries of the Eurasian Economic Union (the EAEU) as well.
Entry into the Euro Zone: the Challenges to the Lending and Monetary Policy of the Bank of Lithuania
A small nation of three million and one of the fastest growing economies in Europe, Lithuania became the 19th member of the euro zone. Meanwhile, the euro area itself is balancing on the verge of recession and deflation.
To the Readers
Moscow Economic Forum – 2015
At the Source of Transformations
Onto the Bookshelf
- N. Yashina. Creation for the Future
- R. Gaysin. The World Lives in Debt
- N. Dedkova. Patent Specialists – Challenge of Times and Profession