A.A.Akaev (Kyrgyzstan), S.D. Bodrunov (Russia), V.M. Geets (Ukraine), M.S. Gorbachev (Russia), G.K. Galbraith (USA), M.Zeman (Czechia), I. Iliesku (Romania), G. Kolodko (Poland), A. Ye. Lebedev (Russia), A. Michnik (Poland), A.D. Nekipelov (Russia), P.G.Nikitenko (Belarus), K. Prunskene (Lithuania), R.Skidelsky (United Kingdom), Î. Sulejmenov (Kazakhstan), F.Tishendorf (Germany), Ya.Charnogursky (Slovakia), L. Sharinger (Austria), G. Erler (Germany)
- The Institute of Economics, Russian Academy of Sciences
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To the Readers of "The World of Transformations"
To the Readers
What gave October "to the city and the world" and
what are his lessons?
By the 100th anniversary of the Russian Revolution
A major institutional event
We need to engage in politics!
The past as the key to the future
Lessons of the Russian Revolution are not learned
Russia is now split
Contradictions of the first breakthrough to the realm
Red October 1917: from freedom to liberation
On the sidelines of the global civilization the process
From the Great Revolution to disintegration Great country
Social justice – the beacon of social revolutions
Do not bring the situation to a spontaneous "Ruthless revolt"
Great country – Great Revolution
When the authorities are deaf to the new public requests
The revolution accelerated the modernization of the country
It is necessary to reach compromises step by step
About the Russian Revolution
The history is done every minute
October 1917 post factum
The "Third Party" of the Revolution
The main law – is the saving of the people
History is a non-stationary process
Civilization charge of October
On the verge of profound changes in the world
The sad consequence of the Russian Revolution
A person must be above society and the state
Do not repeat the same mistakes, but do not forget useful
Requires political will, determination and consistency in
implementing systemic reforms
Need modern social reforms
We are still living inside the Soviet period
Systemic nature of causes and consequences revolution
October as a revolution – restoration
A history written by the winners never is not true
A good vaccination against social demagogy
Was it inevitable?
Postulate on the future millenniums
The age of success that did not become a victory
In Russia, the trend towards simplification and archaic
is stronger trend to development
Having started a dispute between the present and
the past, we lost the future
The truth disappeared, dissolved completely
The October Revolution is lessons for the modern of Russia
Synonyms of the Russian Revolution are great and tragic
There are more dangerous analogies
The most important period in history world civilization
Artificial deviation from the intended historical path
The main lesson of October is the collapse of the failure
The urgent problems must be solved on time
Reflections on October and soviet history
V. Solodkov, O. Solodkova.
It is very important to form legal awareness
of a free citizen
The similarity in one: a lot of talk and steal
The Hegelian mole of history digs slowly
A. Stratan, M. Poisik.
Every revolution is conceived by romantics, is made
fanatics, but use its fruits inveterate scoundrels
The main misfortune of October is the fierce split in society
Where there is no sensitivity to inequality and injustice,
there is a danger of destruction
The October Revolution: historical basics and lessons
for the future
Do not create conditions and prerequisites for revolutions
A positive phenomenon in the history of Russia
We must avoid extremes
Russia is stuck in a civilized impasse
Negative evaluation of October indisputable
The threat of repetition of historical cycles
The Great Russian Revolution
A broad coalition of social groups is needed
To the Readers
- R. Grinberg. How to Overcome Geopolitical Loneliness?
At the Root of Change
Moscow Economy Forum – 2017
To the 100th Anniversary of the Russian Revolution
At the Bookshelf
- I. Sinitsina, N. Chudakova. Innovativeness – the Condition of Modern
How to Overcome Geopolitical Loneliness?
I just want to clarify, why this time, for Journal heading "To the Readers" from which every
issue of the journal "The World of Transformations" traditionally begins, I chose, it would seem,
a strange topic for such a publication, – about loneliness and its overcoming. Frankly speaking,
because, as a personal pain, I perceive that absurd situation, when our country was practically
alone among the most developed and democratic states of the modern world.
A. Grachev. Nostalgia for Utopia
The restructuring (or originally Perestroika), proposed to the country in 1985 by M. Gorbachev,
to this day attracts the attention of both laymen and experts. It is unlikely that this is a simple
curiosity; it is rather that, with that period of national history, with all the cognitive interest,
problems are associated, both in international and domestic life, those problems, which were
unresolved then and which are tangible today. It is all the more valuable when the relevant
circumstances are clarified by the direct participant in those events. Today the editor-in-chief of
the journal, R. Grinberg, talks to A. Grachev – the press secretary of the first president of the
What Development Strategy Will Work in Modern Russia?
Today, once again, national interests determine the development in the whole world. One of the
priority objectives of the Russian government, set by the President of the RF, V. Putin, is to launch
a program that will help overcome stagnation and, as soon as possible, to enter the growth rates
that exceed the growth rates of the world economy. What will be included in this program of
events? Will the tax burden be reduced to free up investments? The answers to these and other
questions were sought by the participants in the II Plenary Discussion of the Moscow Economic
Forum (March 30, 2017).
The Crisis of Capitalism: the Social-Democratic Response
On March 30, within the framework of the Moscow Economic Forum, a meeting of the "round
table" "The Crisis of Capitalism: the Social-Democratic Response" was held. Moderator of the
discussion, the co-chairman of the Forum, R. Grinberg, invited participants to assess the state and
the degree of demand for a socially-oriented model of economic development in the country and
abroad. What are the prospects for "sociality" and "democracy" in the modern world?
A. Kiva. Without Unambiguous Estimates
The century of such an event as the Russian Revolution of 1917 was to cause serious discussion in
the political elite, the authorities themselves and the media. However, the discussion of this event
in Russia went in an unexpected direction.
A. Tsipko. October "Coup" in the Mirror of Modern "Invalid Patriotism"
Getting rid of the Soviet system, from the domination of Marxist-Leninist ideology, turned into
aggressive anti-Westernism, denial of the values of freedom and individual rights. The features of
this contradictory patriotism are discussed in this article.
The Neighborhood Factor in the Economic Development of New Border Regions of Russia
The peculiarities of the development of border areas are due, on the one hand, to their marginal
position in the state, and on the other – to proximity to neighboring countries. A lot of scientific
research works in Russia and abroad are devoted to the study of these territories. The purpose
of this article is to evaluate the influence of the neighborhood factor with new states on the
economic growth of adjacent regions of Russia, – which are the new border regions (the NBR) in
the years 2005–2015.
The Formation of the Stock Exchange of Securities – the Nature of Frustrations
The modern capitalism as the dominant form of economic activity in the world is not the whole
and the integral system. Depending on the theoretical concept, within the framework of capitalism,
different models of it are highlighted. There are many classifications of models of capitalism, and,
what is more, this heterogeneity is manifested in the use of different terminology, of different criteria
of division, taking into account only economic factors or, in addition, political and social ones.
The Rise of Right-Wing Extremism is a Challenge to Liberal Democracy in Slovakia
The strengthening of populist, Eurosceptic and extremist forces today is a noticeable trend in a
number of European countries. In recent years, xenophobia has become a powerful mobilizing
tool with a subsequent impact on specific forms of practical policies, especially in Central and
Eastern Europe. In parliaments of some European countries, the proportion of deputies,
representing xenophobic and populist parties, is growing.
The Right-Wing Government in Poland is on a Collision Course with the European Union.
Over the weekend, a bill overhauling the country’s judiciary passed both chambers of the
parliament. If it gets adopted, the ruling Law and Justice Party will be able to fill Poland’s
Supreme Court with its hand-picked allies. Critics warn it would be a profound step toward
Poland’s President to Veto Controversial Laws amid Protests
Andrzej Duda says he will block proposed legislation that would have put Supreme Court under
control of ruling party.
Under the Sword of Damocles
The Ministry of Education and Science of the RF has proposed for public discussion the draft Law
on Science, on Scientific, Technical and Innovation activities. Does it contribute to a solution of the
main problems of science, of scientific, technical and innovative activities? Does it assume significant
positive changes in the goal setting and planning of scientific activities, or, on the contrary, does it
open the way to a reduction of the number of scientific institutions and of their funding?
Financialization Has Turned the Global Economy into a House of Cards
Contemporary capitalism revolves around neoliberalism, globalization and financialization, with
the latter being the dominant force in this triad. Yet, there is still confusion about the nature and
dynamics of financialization, including its impact on the economy.
SCO Expansion: The New Opportunities and the New Risks
The key event of the next regular SCO summit (June 9, 2017) in Astana was the adoption of
two new members – India and Pakistan. Such expansion can open up a qualitatively new stage
of its activity, identify additional opportunities and enhance the organization’ authority in
international affairs, and raise the importance in the world. At the same time, substantial interstate
contradictions in these countries cannot but cause concern.
Is Slovakia the Most Successful of the European Union’s Countries?
Slovakia is considered the most successful country in the European Union – GDP is growing,
industry is developing, and unemployment is declining. A number of macroeconomic indicators
of the country are higher than the average European ones. But Slovakia has serious disagreements
with the European Union on issues of geopolitics and of internal policy of the EU and it is not
afraid to defend its position.
To the Readers
Moscow Economic Forum – 2017
At the Bookshelf
- L. Vardomsky. Econometric Measurement of Eurasian Space
Civil War in the Minds of Russians Is not Over
100 years ago, extraordinary events took place in Russia. How to evaluate the revolution
of 1917? The thesis that the Russian impulse to justice had a serious impact on the social
sphere of the then capitalism is virtually not challenged. The establishment of equality,
which the October Revolution declared and largely implemented, quickly gained
European, if not world-wide, popularity. In short, sociality is the main benefit that the
October Revolution gave.
Confused Man between Despair and Hope: World Situation and Russian Specificity
Such topic was chosen by the participants of the first plenary discussion of the 5th
Moscow Economic Forum, which, according to tradition, was held in the Shuvalov Corps
of the Moscow State University named after M.V. Lomonosov on March 30–31, 2017.
E. Kleer. Central and Eastern Europe: Peripheral and Imitative Capitalism
To answer the question of how capitalism was built in Central and Eastern Europe, a
serious theoretical socio-economic and politico-economic analysis is required. Only
then we can understand the characteristics of these peripheral states.
S. Radzievskaya. On the Financial Viability of the Post-Soviet States
At the end of XX century as a result of the collapse of the camp of the socialist countries
and the USSR that headed them, the world became unipolar – capitalist, led by the
United States, in fact the only hegemon, and a single world financial system with the
main currency being the US dollar.
A. Shurubovich. Russian-Belarusian Relations: a Thorny Integration Path
Russian-Belarusian relations are now experiencing a very difficult period. The integration
process within the framework of the Union State, formed by the two countries, the
treaty on the creation of which was signed back in 1999, clearly "stumbles", its prospects
J. Kotowicz-Javor. Will Poland Have an Innovative Economy?
After 27 years of Polish economic transformation, the creation of the foundations of a
social market economy and a democratic state, after its inclusion in the structure of the
European Union and the opening up for competition at the global level, many positive
changes in it can be noted.
B. Shmelev. What Russia Wants and What Russia Can do in Foreign Policy
Nowadays we hear more and more often, that turbulence is growing in the sphere
international affairs. This means that relations between nations and states are becoming
less stable, which means that they must take care of preventing or countering potential
and often actual, threats from the external environment, which means that resources
must be diverted for this. Why is it restless in the world, what hinders the creative
Shaky of Neutrality
A very tense atmosphere in Europe has been increasingly exacerbated recently by the
North Atlantic alliance – NATO. This military and political bloc continues to draw more
and more countries of Europe into itself, assuring them that, as they say, only within
NATO they will be protected from imminent Russian aggression. Meanwhile, in modern
Europe there are countries that do not succumb to horrors about the Russian threat and
do not want to sacrifice their independence.
Is the Specter of Communism Returning?
Mankind worked its entire history for the sake of the bread of a vital and better future
for future generations. Economists, sociologists and government officials of some very
prosperous countries, came to the conclusion that citizens of these countries can always
be paid the so-called unconditional base income. The idea of unconditional income is
being tried for implementation in two other countries: in Finland and the in Netherlands,
and it is actively discussed in the European press..
Unconditional Income and Prospects of Post-Capitalism?
The theoretical perspective of a new ideological consensus is considered in the article,
which should become a response to the inability of modern capitalism to respond
adequately to the challenges of production automation and precarization..
Problems of Prolonging Working Life
Western society is aging, life expectancy in retirement is increasing, at the same time,
the official retirement age is increasing, and numerous programs to stimulate the
employment of persons of older age groups are being developed. However various
spheres of life, especially the labor and social, are not yet ready for radical demographic
Rating: a Tool of "Soft Power" or an Indicator of Development?
In recent years, the ratings covered almost all spheres of our life, including international
economic relations. Of course, a comparative analysis is good in itself, for clarity, but for
experts and managers, most likely, it is necessary to identify bottlenecks.
Moldova between European and Post-Soviet Integration Projects
In 2013–2015 years, trade and economic relations between Russia and Moldova survived
a large-scale crisis. In connection with the signing of the association agreement with the
European Union by Chisinau, Moscow introduced the most-favored-nation treatment in
relation to the key articles of Moldovan exports.
BRICS and European Union: Is it Possible for the Alliance
The theme of the 1st Forum of BRICS Research Centers, called "Pragmatic
Cooperation", obliges to present several ideas and some specific proposals. They affect
the general capabilities, challenges and responsibilities of this organization in the
transitional era of globalization.
Arbitrary Assessments and Inconclusive Facts
The appearance of A. Tsipko’s article, dedicated the criticism of Bolshevism, is quite
natural in the Post-Soviet era, and its relevance is beyond doubt given the centennial
anniversary of the Great Russian Revolution of 1917. Undoubtedly, there will be many
more studies that can only be welcomed. The main thing is that they should help a
correct, not one-sided, but impartial understanding of the tragic and fateful events of
To the Readers
At the Root of Change
To the 25th Anniversary of the Newly Independent States
At the Bookshelf
- V. Ryazanov. Neoindustrializm and Strategy of Economic Development
- A. Vorontsov. Russia's Interaction with East Asian Partners
- The Publications of the Institute of Economics of the Russian Academy
of Sciences on International Problems in 2015–2016
Springboard or Emergency Room?
A multi-part media saga about the ascent of Donald Trump to the presidential throne in the USA
does not appear to have reached its climax, although the sacred line of the first 100 days of his
presidency is already near.
The System Had to be Reformed, not Destroyed
The events of twenty-five years ago, when the USSR collapsed, and after it the world of socialism
followed, when the peoples of almost 30 countries started the reconstruction of the social and
economic structure, still attract attention. Apparently, that time is not just interesting, but, in
many respects, it is instructive.
Updating Economic Policy in Azerbaijan
Contemporary Azerbaijan is the leading state in the Southern Caucasus, the share of which
is over two thirds of the region’s economy. Having large reserves of hydrocarbons and a unique
geographical location, which is at the at the crossroads of Europe and Asia, the country managed
to attract foreign capital of the leading developed countries to the oil and gas sector back in the
90s, which later became the main driver of economic growth. The integration of the Republic of
Azerbaijan into the global economy as a major energy supplier, made it possible, for a quarter of a
century, to achieve exceptional results of social and economic development.
L. Fokina. Transformation of the Economy of Moldova: Disappointing Results
The first President of Moldova M. Snegur, advocating for the reunification of the Republic of
Moldova with Romania, in fact, provoked forceful actions against Transnistria, whose population
vigorously resisted reunification. As a result, on the territory of Transnistria, the self-proclaimed
Transnistrian Moldavian Republic was formed. The existence of the unrecognized republic has
become one of the features of the Post-Soviet evolution of Moldova’s economy.
E. Monczynska. Inclusion as an Imperative of Social and Economic Structure
The contemporary modern global free-market social and economic reality is most clearly
manifested from two sides. On the one hand, with one of them, it is growing social inequality,
extensive social isolation and the world’s remaining zones of famine, with a population of about
one billion people. On the other hand, there are growing manifestations of tranquility and
squandering in the world of the rich, in the world economy of surplus.
E. Vilkin. Institutional Changes as a Driver of Transformations of Economic Systems
The interest of researchers in the importance of institutions, of institutional changes and in the
evolution of social and economic systems increased markedly over the past several decades. One
of the most important reasons for this interest is the experience of former socialist countries,
passing through fundamental systemic changes and facing dilemmas concerning the choice of the
institutional model of capitalism or of another social and economic system.
E. Sheinin. Energy Factor in Russia's Economic Relations with the Countries of Central-Eastern Europe:
a Difficult Search for a Compromise
Providing of the economies of the countries of Central-Eastern Europe (CEE) with energy
resources is one of the most urgent and complex problems. In its solution, the cooperation of
these countries with Russia plays a significant role. For Russia, it is a market and a source of revenues from energy exports, determined by the geographical proximity and the established
traditional ties. For the CEE countries, these are the energy supply and the energy security.
What Happened to the Entrepreneurial Spirit of the Germans?
In Germany, small and medium-sized businesses, along with the largest private and public
companies and concerns, have always been a co-author of economic development, one of the most
important factors in building of the strength of the country. What today has become the reason
and the socio-economic stimulus for reduction of the entrepreneurial activity of the population in
The Bulgarian Turn
In any democratic country in the world, the elections of the head of state, no matter whether it is
a presidential republic or a parliamentary one, become the most important event for its citizens.
In such small states as Bulgaria, presidential elections were of a fateful character in contemporary
How to Save the Sociality of a Market Economy
According to the International Labor Organization – ILO, the first specialized agency of
the United Nations that has been operating since 1946 on a tripartite basis and is attended by
representatives of governments, organizations of workers and employers from 187 countries in the
world, 73 percent of the world’s population, or 5,2 billion people, is without any social protection.
These data reflect the dramatic level of social injustice in the world.
Wage Stagnation and Inequality in the USA
This paper is based on a series of reports from Raising America’s Pay, a multiyear research, which
had been conducted by the Economic Policy Institute over a period of several years, in order to
make wage growth an urgent national policy priority. The studies of Raising America’s Pay
identify broad-based wage growth as the central economic challenge of our time, which is essential
for alleviating inequality, expanding the middle class, reducing poverty, creating equal access to the
economic prosperity, and for sustaining of economic growth.
How to Measure the Progress of Regional Economic Integration?
One of the main trends of the world development of the XXI century is the interaction and
competition of global and regional processes. Already at the end of the second half of the last
century, the incorrectness of the thesis about the domination of globalization, becomes clear. In
fact, two multidirectional vectors dominated and continue to dominate: these are globalization and
fragmentation (regionalization and inter-regionalization in the form of emerging trans-oceanic
partnerships). The unmatched periods of the peak of development of each of the vectors explain
why globalization was considered as the dominant one.
A Pilot Project of "The Greater Eurasian Partnership"
In 2016, the idea of "The Greater Eurasian Partnership" was put forward at the center of Russia's
conceptual approaches to advancing of its strategy in the Asian Pacific Region (the APR). At the
St. Petersburg Economic Forum in June of 2016, President of Russia V. Putin proposed "to think
about the creation of the Greater Eurasian Partnership with the participation of the Eurasian
Economic Union, as well as of the countries with which we already have close relations, such as
China, India, Pakistan, Iran and of course our partners in the CIS and in other interested states
and associations". What are the prospects for this Eurasian partnership in the new geo-economic
To the Readers
- A. Akayev. Has no Alternative the Union
- O. Butorina. Freedom – Economic Category
- O. Bukhovets. Full Integration will Take Place
- L. Vardomsky. An Important Factor in European and World Politics
- P. Havlik. Expectations and Real Outcomes in Retrospect
- S. Dubinin. About Experience of the Last Quarter-Century
- I. Egorov. "Better to Fear than Frightened"
- Z. Zakhariev. We need Effective Forms of Integration
- V. Inozemtsev. We live in a Period of Post-Soviet Disintegration
- V. Papava. Does "Barrier Dimension" Overcome?
- A. Ryabov. Pessimistic Prospects
- J. Sapir. The Integration can Take Place in a Sustainable Manner if the Sovereignty
of each Country is Respected
- Li Sin. Breakthrough Possible
- A. Tavadyan. Perspectives of Integration Processes in the Eurasian Space
- A. Shirov. Necessary to Strengthen the Structural and Industrial
- B. Shmelev. The Political Fragmentation of the Post-Soviet Space is Preserved
- R. Khasbulatov. New Independent States: Gains and Losses
Onto the Bookshelf
- T. Kochegarova. The Subjective Factor of the Russian Reformation 90s
Post-Soviet Space Today: Results and Lessons
After 20 years of autonomous existence of each of the republics of the former USSR,
almost nobody argues about the content of the elites' intentions in connection with
obtaining of the state independence.
The 25th Anniversary of the New Independent States
A quarter century ago, the former Soviet republics, embarked on the path of
independent development, at the same time they expressed the desire to radically change
social but the economic system.
How to Prepare a Safe Transformation of "Post-Putin's" Russia?
Under the present regime in Russia, in the best case, the local positive changes are
possible, which are insufficient even just to stop the degradation of the country. It
urgently needs systemic reforms. But it is not expedient to start them without a
preliminary transformation of the behavioral culture of potential reformers. For an
effective conversion of behavior, it is necessary to conduct a drastic increase of the
rationality of decision making.
O. Komolov. Modern Capitalism: Whether Regional Economy Survive?
The history of the market economy of the last decades exposed important contradiction
in the development of this system, associated with the processes of its monopolization.
On the one hand, a relative enlargement of enterprises forms conditions for building up
labor productivity and technological progress. On the other, – it creates dangers for the
economic development in the interests of society as a whole, as well as it undermines the
main engine of the market, – which is free competition.
Turbulence as a Threat to World Energy Security of Russia
Energy security of Russia, in conditions of the new balance of power in the world
community, is considered. The situation has dramatically changed in recent years due to
the worsening of Russia's relations with the EU, the US and with Ukraine, as well as the
imposition of sanctions of the West. The advances in scientific and technical sphere has
made possible the production of hydrocarbons from shale, the use of renewable energy
sources, and the development of trade in liquefied natural gas. The liberalization of the
European energy market is being further developed. As a result, the configuration of the
global energy economy is changing; the new threats and risks to reliable energy supply
of Russia, are emerging.
I. Archvadze. Georgia and Russia: Economy Reconciliation
Today, when considering the Russian-Georgian relations, the emphasis is made on
traditional policies and issues related to Abkhazia and South Ossetia, on the status of
visas for Georgian citizens. However, the rapidly developing, in recent years, economic
relations between Georgia and Russia, deserve more and more attention and objective
P. Minakir. Far Eastern Dimension of Spatial Economy
On July 1, 2016, the Economic Research Institute of Far Eastern Branch of the Russian
Academy of Sciences (ERI FEB RAS) celebrated 40th anniversary since its foundation.
Today, both in Russia and abroad, it is widely known and authoritative center of
fundamental and applied researches on a wide range of issues of the development of the
Russian Far East, of the Russian economic space as well as of the international economic
interactions and social development of the region. The Editor-in-Chief of the Journal
"The World of Transformations", R. Grinberg, talks to the Director of the Institute,
Academician P. Minakir.
November 11, 2016 Russian Economic Community for the first time It celebrates its
professional holiday – Day of the economist.
How to Live after the "Cold War"?
President Gorbachev, in his impressive and forward-looking opening address, asked us to
work together to face global challenges and insisted that our discussions should respond
to the new challenges of our time. This conference is focused on the European Security
after the Cold War. What is Europe – does it include Russia or not? I believe that sound
European security depends on building a constructive relationship with Russia.
Nguyen Quoc Hung.
External and Foreign Policy of Vietnam Towards China
In the XXI century, the interstate political relations between Vietnam and China,
deteriorated sharply, against the background of the progressive development of mutual
visits of heads of state and leaders of the Communist Parties and of their intensively
developing economic, parliamentary, cultural and scientific ties. The reason was the
ongoing dispute over the belonging of Paracel Islands and of Spratly Islands' archipelago
in the South China Sea, which had been continuing for several decades.
Bolshevism and National Socialism: the Old and the New Threats
Exactly a quarter of a century ago, Russia accomplished the alleged anti-communist
revolution, proclaimed the priority of individual rights and liberties and of the universal
humanistic values. But, in spite of this, the truth about the initial anti-human nature
of Bolshevism, from which we had ostensibly refused, hitherto did not become the
foundation of our historical memory.